NAD has two forms: NAD + and NADH
NAD is a molecule discovered in 1906. It is essential to help the cell's energy factory, the mitochondria, produce energy. It is a molecule found in all living cells and is essential for the normal functioning of metabolism and many other key molecules. (Reference: Enhance the therapeutic potential of NAD+ in aging and age-related diseases)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a cofactor for metabolism. NAD is present in all living cells and is called a dinucleotide because it consists of two nucleotides connected by its phosphate group. One nucleotide contains an adenine nucleoside base and the other contains nicotinamide. NAD exists in two forms: oxidized form and reduced form, abbreviated as NAD + and NADH (hydrogen stands for H). These two forms of NAD are called "redox pairs", and the term is used to describe the reduced form (reduction in redox) and the oxidized form ("oxidation" in redox) of the same atom or molecule. NAD + and NADH is considered to be a molecule containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and phosphorus atoms.
why is it like this? NAD molecules act as transmitters, absorbing electrons from one place and transferring them to another place. Before the NAD molecule absorbs electrons, it is called NAD +. When it absorbs electrons, it is called NADH. Its ability to switch between these two forms allows NAD to perform its main function-carrying electrons from one reaction to the other during metabolism and energy production.
In the context of NAD+, redox reactions are a key component of cellular energy production. When NAD + is converted to NADH, it gains two things: first, a charged hydrogen molecule (H +), and second, two electrons.
NADH is considered to be an activated carrier molecule. Its function is to transfer these excess electrons to the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Donate them to a structure called the electron transport chain. Like food molecules, NADH acts as an electron donor.
Metabolism is the process of breaking down these macromolecules (often called macromolecules) into their constituent parts, so they can be used as energy or as a component of cell structure.
Although the caloric theory mainly relates to the caloric value of our nutrition, electron donors have rapidly become more and more important in modern nutritional medicine. The electron donor provides electrons to our body. They strengthen the immune system, provide energy for our body (brain, cardiovascular system, muscle system), support the regeneration process and delay aging. The lack of electron donors can lead to the loss of mental and physical activity and accelerate the aging process.
NAD+ is converted to NADH and vice versa. This is an important reaction for the production of ATP (or energy) during the so-called cellular respiration process. The food you consume goes through three stages to become energy: glycolysis, Krebs cycle and electron transport chain. In order to play its role as an electronic carrier, NAD switches back and forth between two forms of NAD + and NADH. NAD+ accepts electrons in food molecules and converts them into NADH. NADH donates electrons to oxygen and then converts back to NAD+.
Cells also use NAD+ and NADH in reactions other than ATP production. For example, in liver cells, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes use NAD + as an oxidant to decompose ethanol from alcoholic beverages into less toxic compounds called acetates. In each enzymatic reaction, NAD+ accepts two electrons and the H+ in ethanol forms NADH.
The charge of the NAD molecule tells it how to interact with other molecules. For example, NADH cannot perform NAD+ operations and vice versa.
Functions of NADH:
Central role in cellular energy production
NADH is at the top of the respiratory chain and is the most important and energy-rich electron carrier in human metabolism. With the oxidation of nutrients, it is biologically irreplaceable as a function of generating cell energy (ATP production) and regulating cells. (Reference: Mitochondria-targeted fatty acid analogues play a role in lowering plasma triglycerides in rats with impaired carnitine biosynthesis)
Elements of various regenerating enzymes
NADH is a coenzyme of various hydrogen transferases, which supports the regeneration of brain, heart, blood vessels and muscle cells, including the functions of reproductive organs.
Positively affect the synthesis of activated neurotransmitters
Studies have confirmed that NADH has a positive effect on the synthesis of neurotransmitters. In vitro studies have shown that NADH can increase the output of the neurotransmitter dopamine by up to 6 times. In addition, NADH stimulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a key enzyme that produces up to 70% dopamine. (Reference: Coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) stimulates dopamine biosynthesis in cultured PC 12 pheochromocytoma cells) The neurotransmitter dopamine is very important for several basic behavioral functions, such as motivation, learning , Psychomotor and concentration.
Used as an antioxidant against free radicals
NADH is the most powerful antioxidant in the human body and plays a major role in neutralizing cytotoxic free radicals and peroxides.
In the middle of the last century, NADH was successfully used as an infusion to treat a variety of neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and late-onset dementia. Due to its chemical instability, the infusion must always be prepared fresh. NADH cannot be widely used due to its highly sensitive and unstable molecular characteristics. Oral NADH is impossible, because the substance will be destroyed by contact with stomach acid immediately after ingestion. The stability of NADH is a prerequisite for its effectiveness. Therefore, until a few years ago, NADH could be administered only by infusion.
Bioavailability: In the field of nutritional medicine, biological electron donors can be described as antioxidants (such as carotenoids, vitamin C and vitamin E). The strongest antioxidant in our body is NADH. NADH is a key cofactor in hundreds of biochemical reactions related to energy metabolism. NADH is the biologically active form of vitamin B3 (niacin).
Through various comparative studies with plant cells, a plant molecule with similar characteristics to NADH can be identified: chlorophyll. If NADH is the strongest electron donor for humans, then chlorophyll is the strongest electron donor for plants. After a series of research tests, NADH and chlorophyll can be combined to form a natural and stable NADH complex. Therefore, it is the first time to stabilize NADH, a biomolecule with high activity and sensitivity, by combining with natural elements.
The benefits and importance of NADH:
Cognitive function: Based on the function of indirectly increasing dopamine synthesis, by helping to restore the function of certain NADH-dependent mitochondrial enzymes that are closely related to neuronal energy metabolism, and by increasing the energy production of the brain and surrounding cells, it can reduce mitochondrial dysfunction. This may lead to higher metabolic capacity.
The effectiveness of stable NADH as a countermeasure against jet lag has been tested. Thirty-five healthy, employed subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Upon arrival, they were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg NADH or the same placebo tablet. All participants completed computer-managed tests (including the gear screen test) to assess the changes in cognitive ability, function, mood, and sleepiness in the morning and evening. Jet lag caused more than half of the participants to increase sleepiness, and about one-third of the participants' cognitive function decreased. In the morning after the flight, in addition to working memory, distraction and visual perception interruption, the subjects also experienced a decrease in concentration. Compared with those who received a placebo, those who received NADH performed significantly better on the four cognitive test indicators and had lower levels of lethargy. NADH significantly reduces the negative cognitive effects and drowsiness caused by jet lag, is not only easy to take, and has no side effects. Demarin et al. evaluated the effect of stable oral doses of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) on the cognitive function of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The trial is a randomized, placebo-controlled, paired, double-blind, 6-month clinical study. After 6 months of treatment, there was no evidence of progressive cognitive decline in NADH-treated subjects compared with placebo-treated subjects, and the total score was significantly higher. The analysis of the MDRS subscale showed that NADH subjects performed significantly better in terms of oral fluency and visual construction ability, and showed a better trend in abstract verbal reasoning. (Reference: Stable oral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind study) NADH cognition can also be observed in older mice with impaired learning Enhanced properties. (Reference: Treatment with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) can improve water maze performance in old rats)
Physical endurance: Several published experiments and animal studies have shown that strenuous exercise is related to NADH levels. In an open-label test, the dispersion of reaction time and the ergometric performance of 17 competition-level athletes (cyclists and long-distance runners) were checked before and 4 weeks after daily supplementation of NADH. The dispersion of response time (DRT) has become better, and the accuracy and speed of recognizing symbols in a certain pattern has also been improved. (Reference: Reduced coenzyme I (NADH) improves athletes’ mental and physical performance)
Cardiovascular health: Vascular dysfunction may be due to increased free radical production and endothelial-derived relaxation factor nitric oxide (NO) contained in synthesis, release or decreased availability of its activity. A lack of nitric oxide can cause blood vessel relaxation, platelet aggregation and increased blood pressure. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) studied the effect of oral NADH on blood pressure. Ten rats received placebo and ten received NADH for a ten-week experiment. The experiment measured the systolic blood pressure (SBP). Although there was no difference in systolic blood pressure between the two groups in the first month, in the remaining studies of SHR who received oral NADH, systolic blood pressure decreased and significantly decreased. At the end of 60 days, the SHR of the NABP-treated SBP was 184 mm, while the control SHR was 201 mm. Intake of NADH can reduce total cholesterol (p <0.002) and LDL (p <0.02). Therefore, supplementation of natural coenzyme NADH can theoretically prove to prevent age-related BP increase, thereby preventing various cardiovascular diseases. (Reference: Oral reduced B-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) can affect blood pressure, lipid peroxidation and lipid distribution in hypertensive rats (SHR))
Liver metabolism and reproductive organs: NADH can promote liver synthesis and detoxification. Alcohol is mainly broken down in the liver (ie, metabolized) through two pathways: the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) pathway and the microsomal ethanol oxidation system (MEOS). In people who drink alcohol in moderation or occasionally, most alcohol will be broken down by ADH, which is an enzyme that fills cells with fluid (ie, cytoplasm). ADH converts alcohol into acetaldehyde, which is a toxic and highly reactive molecule. During this reaction, hydrogen is removed from the alcohol. NADH participates in many other metabolic reactions, passing hydrogen to other compounds. (References: Alcohol, Liver and Nutrition and on the Liver and Metabolism of Ethanol: Pathogenesis and Prevention)
According to reports, NADH can eliminate sexual desire and dysfunction. Testosterone is considered a male hormone, but it exists in both sexes and has many functions. Women’s output is at most 2% of men’s. Testosterone is produced in the testes of men and the ovaries of women. Regardless of men and women, it contributes to bone and muscle development and blood cell renewal in many functions. It also affects the sexual desire of men and women. Studies have shown that alcohol can inhibit the production of testosterone. Alcohol increases the rate of testosterone breakdown, removes testosterone from the blood and reduces the rate of testosterone production. (Reference: The influence of alcohol (ethanol) on the metabolism of normal male sex hormones) And NADH can reduce the negative effect of alcohol on testosterone levels. (Reference: About the liver and metabolism of ethanol: pathogenesis and prevention)